The island of Cuba

Map and distances

Geography

Flora and fauna

Shield, flag and hymn

History

 

Maps and distances

 

Of the great quantity of maps of Cuba and of Havana that I have found in Internet, some are old and other not very operative ones for the size that hey have. Here I offer you some addresses where you can load some of these. The University of Texas offers a listing of maps of the country and of its capital
For Havana, besides the previous ones, you can get other less detailed ones in Lonely Planet (18 Kb). Also Island Connoisseur provides you magnificent cartography, at the same time that simplified, maps of Cuba, as well as of the cities of Havana, Santiago and Varadero. If what you want is maps of counties or areas inside these you will find them in the option of maps of the Tourist Directory of Cuba
If on the contrary what you want is to look for some city or a small town, for very small that is, I recommend you that you make it through the searcher of the Atlas of Microsoft, it has a good zoom, it will also be good you to obtain maps.

Distance kilometric among capitals

Pinar del Río
147 ... La Habana
264 .... 98 ... Matanzas
421 ... 256 ... 241 ...Cienfuegos
435 ... 270 ... 199 .... 61 ... Santa Clara
513 ... 348 ... 284 ... 145 .... 85 ... Sancti Spiritus
588 ... 423 ... 359 ... 220 ... 160 .... 75 ... Ciego de Avila
698 ... 533 ... 469 ... 330 ... 270 ... 186 ... 170 ... Camagüey
822 ... 657 ... 594 ... 455 ... 395 ... 310 ... 235 ... 125 ... Las Tunas
899 ... 734 ... 671 ... 532 ... 472 ... 387 ... 312 ... 202 .... 77 ...Holguín
897 ... 733 ... 670 ... 531 ... 471 ... 460 ... 311 ... 201 .... 76 .... 73 ... Bayamo
1024 .. 860 ...797 ... 658 ... 598 ... 513 ... 438 ... 328 ... 203 ... 134 ... 127 ... Stgo. de Cuba
1074 .. 910 ... 847 ... 702 ... 648 ... 563 ... 488 ... 378 ... 253 ... 182 ...177 .... 82 .. Guantánamo

Geography

Cuba is formed by the island that gives name to the country, the Youth's Island, as well as for more than four thousand keys and islands that surround it. It is located in the sea Caribbean, in front of the costs of United States and of Mexico, and at a distance of 180 kms. and 210 kms., respectively. 
It occupies a surface that overcomes the 110.000 square kms, with 5.746 coast kms and protected by 4.200 kms. of reefs. The Island has a longitude of 1250 kms. Of those more than 200 existent rivers, the most important for their longitude and flow are the Cauto one (370 kms) and the Toa (100 kms), both in the oriental part, and in the central counties the Sagua la Grande (163 kms), Zaza (155 kms) and Caonao (133 kms). 
The predominant orography is the plain, although three mountainous areas exist: the mountain range of Guaniguanico -in the county of Pinar del Río -, the Sierra from Trinidad (Escambray) and the Sierra Mestra -in the county of Santiago de Cuba -, in this last one it is the maximum bench mark, the Pick Turquino (1.974 meters). Also, in the most oriental area in Cuba we find the small mountains of Nipe, of the Cristal and of the Purial, as well as the Cuchillas of Moa and of Baracoa, all them with heights that oscillate between the 995 and 1.231 meters. 
A population of 11.157.000 inhabitants possesses at June 30 1999, to which you could add a million more in the exterior, in her majority in the North American State of Florida. In Havana they live something more than 2 million people. They continue him in importance Santiago de Cuba (it overcomes with width the 450.000) and Camagüey (with something more than 300.000). Of a historical division of three counties, it spent to another of six and from December of 1975 to the current of 14 more the Special Municipality of Island of the Youth..

Flora and fauna

It is very rich and half of the species they are autochthonous of the Island. In the Cuban landscape they stand out the plantations of tobacco at first sight in the area of Viñales, those of tropical fruits as the pineapple, the mango, the coconut, among other, in the central counties, while in the rest of the country they highlight the plantations of cane of sugar and of corn. 
Also, along the country you will see the palms, of trunk partly flat, another convexed and the superior of green color, this variety is considered as the national tree and it is known by Real Palm (regal Roystonea). Other typical trees are the Framboyán, you will recognize it for the great quantity of flowers of red color, and the Ceiba, of trunk thick, great height and beginning of roots to the air and laminate. 
As for the flowers a great variety exists: orchids, peaceful sea and the butterfly (Hedychium Coronarium Koenig). This last of white and fragrant color is grateful as national flower. 
Many are the typical animals of the Island, among them it is necessary to highlight the crocodile, the caguayo (lizard of small size) and the birds like the tocororos (Priotelus temnurus, autochthonous whose name native was guatiní), the flamingos, the parrots, the zunzuncito (the smallest bird in the world) or the scabby ones (carrion of half size). Also in some parks or reservations of animals you will be able to see an autochthonous fish of half size and its peculiarity is the form of the mouth, as if it was that of a duck, its name it is manjuarí (Atractosteus tristoechus), it belongs to the order Lepisosteiformes, called fish crocodiles. 
If you are interested this topic of the Cuban nature you can visit Rafael Sánchez's specific page .

Shield, flag and hymn

In the shield, the horizontal key among the Gulf of Mexico and of Florida it represents their privileged geographical situation; the dawn makes reference to a young Republic. In the left inferior half the fringes of the Cuban flag appear, while in the right it draws a Cuban typical landscape. In the base a sheaf of eleven sticks that represents the union of the Cubans in its fight for the freedom appears. It crowns the shield the cap frigio of red color with a star that represents the freedom and the blood spilled in their attainment. To the sides of the shield they appear an oak branch (strength) and of laurel (victory).

 

The triangle in reference to the triptych of the French Revolution of " freedom ", " equality " and " fraternity ". The star represents the unit of the Cubans achieved by the blood poured in the cause. The fringes of blue color for the primitive division of the island in three counties, West, Center and East, while the white ones mean the purity and the virtue of the Cuban town.

 

The Cuban hymn, as much the letter as their music, it was composed by Perucho Figueredo in October of 1868 coinciding with Carlos Manuel de Céspedes' rising. For the first place in the one that was sung, Bayamo, was known as "The Bayamesa", passing then to be the national hymn. Escucha la música del himno cubano

Al combate corred, bayameses,
No temáis una muerte gloriosa,
que morir por la Patria es vivir.

En cadenas vivir, es vivir
en afrenta y oprobio sumido.
Del clarín escuchad el sonido.
¡A las armas, valientes, corred!

 

History

The first residents arrived approximately 6.000 years ago at the island, they were aboriginal Araucanian coming from America of the South and that they didn't cultivate the earth for the great quantity of foods that the nature offered them. Well-known as ciboneyes, they were dominated one century before the Discovery by the taínos, a more advanced tribe and natives probably of the island The Spaniard that you/they would have escaped toward Cuba for the pressure of the caribeses, warring and sanguinary tribe. 
The taínos formed collective independent of reduced size that moved in canoes for the island, well for the sea or the rivers before the leafy forest (cedar, ebony and mahogany). These peaceful inhabitants lived in cabins, some circular constructions with conical roof or of rectangular base, these last they last in our days in the rural areas. Each village had the one in front of a cacique or boss and they believed in a Supreme Being. Nudes or semi-nude, in the case of the women, they were adorned with amulets, feathers, shells and jewels, and they put on makeup with red and black colors. They used the pottery, they manufactured stone utensils, wood and shells, and they developed the fishing, the majáes hunt, jutías and iguanas and the agriculture, based mainly on the cultivation of the sweet potato, the yucca, the fruits, the corn and the tobacco. 
After the arrival of the first discoverers, October of 1492, 27 in the first years of the XVI century the Spanish expansion began from the proximities of Tip Maisí headed by Diego Velázquez that, better armada, the aboriginal population shrank until her extinction. This dominance culminated with the death in the cacique's blaze Hatuey and the slaughter of Caonao. To their step, the Spaniards founded the first cities beginning with Nuestra Señora de la Asunción -Baracoa - (1510-1511), to which followed San Salvador de Bayamo (1513), in 1514 Sancti Spíritus, Santísima Trinidad, San Cristóbal de La Habana (first location of Havana until arriving to the current one that dates of November of 1519), in 1515 they were it Santa María of the Port Prince (today Camagüey) and Santiago from Cuba. The bloody dominance had the priest's opposition Bartolomé de las Casas. 
The use of native for new conquests, as well as the hardness of the work to which they were subjected and their weakness before illnesses arrived from the Old World, as the pock and the syphilis, they put an end to the Indians. To substitute this manpower it was appealed African slaves, of those that one has perseverance documented from 1513. 
Shrunk the natural wealth of the Island, the Spaniards began in the first half of the century XVI expeditions toward Mexico and Peru, and this way in 1518 Hernán Cortés undertook the conquest of Mexico. To control the whole trade between Spain and America, the Catholic Kings had created in 1503 the House of Recruiting of Seville, with that that all those products that wanted to travel in one or another sense would have to take the trip from Seville to Santiago de Cuba, then the shipment possibility was enlarged when authorizing the ports of Cádiz and Havana. For a Real Identification of 1607 the Island is divided in two jurisdictions, that of Havana and that of Santiago from Cuba. This trade monopoly favored mainly to the development of these ports and its surroundings, but it didn't have the approval of the other countries of Europe. 
This situation of absolute control of the trade was the explosive of wars between Spain and other countries (France, England and Holland). These countries granted the corso patent or possibility of attacking to the Spanish ships that made the voyage and the Hispanic ports in America. In general, half of the obtained booty it will stop to these monarchies dealer of the document. Spain defended organizing fleets of return of America with gold and silver under the protection of ships of war. The ships of transport grouped in Havana and from there they began the trip to Spain. To protect Havana of the attacks of corsairs and pirates by the middle of the XVI one the construction of the first fortifications began, first the Castle of the Real Force and then the Castle of the Three Kings (El Morro-The Muzzle) and the strength of The Tip (La Punta). The protection of the city was completed in the XVI one with several turrets and walls. In a same way, also starting from the XVII one the city Matanzas was fortified with the Castle of San Severino and that of Santiago de Cuba with the Castle of San Pedro del Mar. The costs to finance all they came partly from the silver obtained in Mexico. 
The economic imbalance and of possibilities of consenting to products come from the Old Continent for the rest of the Island propitiated the appearance of the illegal trade. There was an example of this in Bayamo, where the implication of the criminal trade was almost widespread and it reached to the highest instances in the town council, for what a judicial process began that concluded with the population's rebellion when they tried to transfer Havana to the convicts. The danger of uncertainty made that the Spanish Crown forgave to those prosecuted to avoid bigger wrongs. 
Of the great business of the tobacco, developed in the areas of Santiago de las Vegas, Güines, Sagua la Grande, Trinidad, Sancti Spíritus, Remedios, Mayarí and Sagua of Tánamo, took out the biggest economic benefits the big landowners who leased on behalf of their lands to the vegueros, and the merchants. The Crown also intervened implanting in 1717 the purchase control and sale with the cigar store of the tobacco, monopoly for which the free sale was prohibited, fixed some purchase shares and he/she put under an obligation to the vegueros to trade him through the Factory. This new measure caused the rebellion of the vegueros. 
The Havanan pressure of the rich ones and some merchants forced to the Crown to authorize in 1740 the creation of the Real Company of Trade of Havana in whose benefits would participate and from the one that the whole trade was controlled. 
The appetizing thing of the one pierces of the port of Havana for other foreign powers made that in 1762 the Englishmen disembarked with an impressive army in the area of Cojimar and from there they advanced to the capital. Overcome the opposition, in August of that year the Spaniards signed the capitulation, for which they gave the Englishmen the control of the counties of Matanzas, Havana and Pinar del Río. The English domain lasted eleven months and in 1763 a new agreement returned Spain the entirety of the Island in exchange for the territory of Florida. 
The cultivation and processed of the cane of sugar, taken to the Island by the first settlers and that so good result gave, it evolved in the first years of the XIX century with the application of the technical advances from the Industrial Revolution to the geniuses -centers of having processed of the cane -, the oxen of the mills were substituted by the machine of vapor, increasing the quantity of mill and the yield. Another advance was the inauguration in November of 1837 of the first railroad line, The Havana-Bejucal that then extended until the rich sugar area of Güines. The wealth that produced the cane made that the number of geniuses passed of 400 in 1800 until those almost 1400 in 1861. The extension of the cultivation and the manpower lack bore the increase of the slavery, from 1817 in a secret way Spain had signed the agreement of abolition since in 1817. The slave's life in Cuba has been reflected in Miguel's book Barnet The last one wild." 
Little by little it was being born the idea of independence of the Metropolis. In the century XVVIII the Jesuit were expelled of the Island and toward final of that century the first movements independent are born in the environment of the Government of the general Luis de las Casas that gave coat to the first of meetings of members of the Patriotic Society of Friends of the Country. In 1825 a group of Cuban emigrants was founded in Mexico the Meeting Protector of the Cuban Freedom. In 1850 the first incursion failed to the Island from New Orleans, six hundred men organized by Narciso López were able to be made with Cárdenas's city, but finally they were rejected. During almost two decades small risings were happened until in October of 1868 a ten year-old war began that had its starting point with the taking of Bayamo for Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, it dates in the one that Pedro Figueredo composed the hymn of the country (The Bayamesa). Céspedes gave the freedom to the slaves and it encouraged them to collaborate in its company, at the same time that the sentence of Alive Free Cuba was coined!. To this they were added heroes like Maximo Gómez, Antonio Maceo, Calixto García, Donato Mármol, Vicente García, Francisco Vicente Aguilera or Ignacio Agramonte. 
In this the ten year-old war risings and skirmishes independent were happened, in that of Bayamo the Cubans (mambises) they used like attack weapon the force of the machete and some rifles. After making go back until Baire to a column that sought to recover Bayamo, the Spaniards they sent in January of 1869 an important army that you/they took the city rampart of their freedom. For those dates the camagüeyanos rose in The Carnations headed by Bernabé Varona and Augusto Arango who took some villages of the area. To the little one they were united Ignacio Agramonte, who headed the revolution in the county. Then, in February of 1869 the lift of Las Villas took place, following the previous examples. 
Gathered the representatives of these three counties April 10 1869 in the Assembly of Guáimaro, they decided to organize a Camera of Representatives, they named first president of the Republic of Cuba in Weapons of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and they edited their first Constitution of the Republic in Weapons, in which they abolished the slavery and they decreed the equality among the whole men. Also, they adopted like emblem the flag that they made wave in Cárdenas in 1850. 
The rebellion was difficultly appeased by the Spanish troops, although in the oriental area of the country they found the opposition of the biggest general Maximum Gómez's troops and of the biggest general Vicente García in Guantánamo, Holguín and Las Tunas (1871-72). In this campaign it began to emerge the young Antonio Maceo. The repression had a historical example in November of 1871 in Havana, when in a military trial, encouraged by volunteers that requested blood, they were condemned to death 8 students of Medicine, to those that accused of profaning the tomb of a Spanish journalist. They were executed next to the strength of the Tip, where today in day a Mausoleum is erected. 
The death of Agramonte (1873) and of the already deprived president of Céspedes (1874) it was a hard blow for the Cuban insurrectionists who their military actions continued toward the occident of the Island. It was then when Spain reinforced its army to put an end to the situation and it put to the control to the general Martínez Campos (1876). This got discourage to the lifted combatants offering them the pardon, money and lands. Tired around war, divided and without external help, the Cuban succumbed and in February of 1878 the president Tomás Estrada Palma signed the peace of Zanjón. The signed document specified some improvements for the Island, but they left without effect the intentions freedom and the abolition of the slavery that it didn't affect those that had participated in the risings. This peace was not accepted by Antonio Maceo who made it to him to taste in an interview like the general Martínez Campos in what is known as the Protest of Baragua March 15 1878. Maceo portioned toward Jamaica for its followers' who understood recommendation that it was more important its work in the exterior for get the help of the emigration and to continue the fight then. Some dissatisfactions stayed in Cuba and during 1879 they followed the skirmishes in the war known like "Chiquita" (little). 
From 1892 Cuba lived in an autonomous way, but the ideas of freedom had not disappeared, although their more excellent valedores was outside of the country. To surprise and to divide the Spanish forces February of 1895, 24 they got up in different points of the Island Sunday of carnival. The action had been devised and ordinate from the exterior for José Martí, delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party who returned to participate in the fight, to which the siblings united Maceo or Maximum Gómez, military director of the war. In the confrontations of May of 1895 Martí died who had made be born the antirracism ideas, latinamericanism, not in vain it had resided in several countries of the environment, and anti-imperialism, for the threat that supposed for the Latin American countries the neighbor of the North. 
The same as it had happened in previous occasions, the risings began in the Oriental part and in Camagüey, headed by Maceo and Gómez, respectively, and they were advancing for Moron until arriving to the county of Matanzas, in 90 days they had only arrived until the most western ends in the Island. To squash the rebellion, the general Martínez Campos who had refused to apply hard measures against the population ordered by Cánovas, was substituted by Valeriano Weyler, to which "The butcher" nicknamed for his hardness. To cut the support to the insurrectionists, Weyler decreed the concentration of the peasants in towns controlled by the Spaniards and it ordered to raze fields, with what cut the supply. The accumulation in cities and under inhuman conditions it caused great number of low in the population. The result was the reconquest for the Spaniards of the western area, although to coast of great number of low in its army. Near Havana Antonio Maceo fell in December of 1896. 
Under control of the Cubans the Oriental, Maximum Gómez was as maximum military boss. This had begun in January of 1896 from The Villages the Campaign of the Reformation that maintained until January of 1897. The tactics used to combat to the Spaniards was the one of breaking into fragments its army in small groups that attacked, they escaped quickly and they changed its base quickly, what wore away and it shrank in troops to its enemy. During 1897 the general Calixto García maintained his campaign from the taking of The Tunas, to which those of entity populations like Guáimaro or Guisa, with what consolidated his control in the oriental area. Sagasta again in the power in Spain from October of 1897 substituted Weyler for Blanco, at the same time that it granted Cuba a régime of autonomy that it understood the equality of rights for Spaniards and Cuban, the installation of universal vote, the establishment of a bicameral insular parliament and the local control in education politics, tariffs, public works, customses or industry. 
United States expert already of the situation of Spanish weakness in the Island and with desires of being made with the control on her, they sent to Havana in January from 1898 to their ship of war " Maine " with the supposed mission of defending to the North American colony. The ship exploited February 15 and in the accident it almost died the whole seamanship and only 2 officials. The first theses pointed to a combustion accident inside the ship, but the North American authorities headed by Marina's secretary of State Teodoro Roosevelt with the help of the group of sensationalist press Hearst they used the fact to heat their warlike machinery. United States tried to buy Spain the Island, then it ordered the one they sent to Cuba of its fleet to block the port of Havana, action was responded by Spain with the declaration of war, and finally in June it approved the Combined Resolution, in which declared the right of Cuba to be free and independent. Spain sent its fleet that was sunk by the North American May 1 in the Cavite and the one that was to the admiral Cervera July 5 to the exit of the port of Santiago from Cuba. Spain surrendered and it signed the armistice August 12 and the treaty December 12 for the one that the Island got the independence, although it was low North American administration, and it gave the conquering Puerto Rico and Filipinas. 
The North American military occupation was prolonged up to May of 1902, although from then on the Island was low its economic control. During this time a general improvement of the conditions of the country took place, they started to improve the sanity, the public education, the government activity was centralized, it was reorganized the postal service and the administration of customses. In those 41 months the positions of responsibility were occupied for Cuban. To be endowed of a Constitution in November of 1990 the Constituent Convention it was inaugurated that worked during four months. Of her it emanated the Constitution of February of 1901, following the North American pattern, for which was endowed to the country of a republican government with the separation of the three powers (executive, legislative and judicial). This was effective up to 1940. 
United States for not losing the control Cuba has more than enough it approved an additional clause to the Budget of Guerra of its country, well-known as Amendment Platt, for which United States imposed eight conditions to make the military retreat, as those of not being able to negotiate treaties with any country that could put in danger its independence, not to be able to get in debt openly, all the measures that adopted would have to only be authenticated by the North American government, the sale or lease on behalf of its territory to United States to locate naval bases (fruit of the establishment of the base of Guantánamo) and the most dangerous that United States was reserved the right to intervene in the country whenever it considered that the freedom and the population's well-being required it, point that was effective up to 1934. This Amendment had to be accepted by the Cubans as not well smaller, if they wanted the North Americans to leave the Island, and it was incorporate as appendix to the Cuban Constitution. 
Initiate a presidential electoral process at the end of 1901, in which didn't participate for its advanced age the generalissimo Maximum Gómez, in December of that year was elect Tomás Estrada Palma who had already occupied the presidency during the Republic of Cuba in Weapons in the years seventy who it transferred its residence to United States after the Peace of Zanjón and it adopted its nationality. It gave up this nature letter to be able to take possession May 20 1902. Estrada was reelected in 1905, but before the accusations of electoral fraud it gave up. The critical situation in which sank the country was taken advantage of by United States to start the Amendment Platt and to intervene in the Island, dominance that was prefaced until January of 1908. In these two long years of North American presence a development of the agriculture took place and in the infrastructure of highways. 
In 1909 the leader of the Liberal Party, José Miguel Gómez, conquered in the presidential elections. During their command, in 1911, they were refloated the remains of the Maine temporarily and it was noticed that their sinking took place for an internal explosion, a rebellion also took place of black that point motivate the North American intervention. To this it happened him in the presidency between 1913 and 1921el general Mario García Menocal in whose command an important prosperity took place, it began to circulate the Cuban weight, the law of the divorce was promulgated and a system is established pluripartidista fully in 1919. The following leader from Cuba was Alfredo Zayas (1921-1925), presidency that coincided with a serious economic crisis that she forced to the country to carry out a loan of 50 million dollars with United States and in the one that the university reformation was made. In 1925 it arrived to the power Gerardo Machado, representative of the oligarchy that tried to be perpetuated in the power by means of the constitutional reformation, for what is known as the first dictator of the Island, arriving the situation to such a point that decreed the closing of the University (1930) and it suspended the constitutional guarantees to contain the lift instigated by García Menocal. Overthrown Machado in 1933 after a general strike, a Provisional Meeting was established favored by the North American ambassador and it ascends to colonel's degree to Batista who controlled the country up to 1944. United States didn't recognize the president Ramón Grau San Martin. Then between 1934 and 1938 ephemeral presidencies  was happened Carlos Hevia , the colonel Carlos Mundieta, José A. Barnet, Mariano Gómez -that was deprived by the Senate in 1936 for its discrepancies with the boss of the Army Fulgencio Bartista - and Federico Laredo Bru. In those years the feminine vote was established (1936) and the Communist Party registered (1938). With the arrival of Batista  to the presidency in 1940, it was endowed to the country of a new Constitution that  abolished the death penalty. Then, in 1944 was elected president Ramón Grau and in 1948 Carlos Prío Socarrás 
The coup of 1952 of Fulgencio Cambric overthrew the president Carlos Prío Socarrás that stayed to the front of Cuba until January of 1959, date in the Revolution headed by Fidel Castro triumphed and the dictator escaped. Previously, in July of 1953 Castro had tried to demolish the Government of Batista with the assault to Moncada's Barracks, in Santiago from Cuba, but they were reduced, convicts and correspondents to the prison of Island of Pines (today Island of the Youth) until they were expelled Mexico in 1955 from where he prepared their second and definitive intent. Once it disembarked in Colored Beach in December of 1956 with eighty loyalists I approach of the yacht Granma, Castro took refuge in Sierra Maestra from where it began the conquest of the country until arriving in Havana January 8 1959. 
Repealed the Constitution of 1940 and substituted by a Fundamental Law, all the power rested fleetingly in the Administration headed by Manuel Urrutia and José Miró Cardona, but soon after it passed to the council of Ministers controlled by the siblings Fidel and Raúl Castro, in its condition of first and vicefirst minister, respectively. He started an economic program that contemplated the agrarian reformation (1959) and the nationalization of the companies (1960). These measures that affected directly to North American interests, motivated the seizure to the exports to the Island in October of 1960 and the rupture of relationships diplomats in January of 1961. 
After rejecting in Bay of Pigs the intent of incursion of anti-Castro forces in April of 1961, the president announced in May the transformation of Cuba in a socialist State with a Marxist-Leninist program, although the relationships with the USSR had reestablished them in May of 1960. The following year, 1962, Cuba was expelled of the OAS and the installation of Soviet missiles began in the Island that caused at the end of the summer of that year what was known as "crisis of the missiles", concluded by means of American-Soviet agreement of the retreat of that warlike material before concluding the year. The biggest approach of Cuba to the USSR in Raúl Castro's trip, in April of 1962, of which the Soviet commitment left to defend the Island in the supposition of being attacked, caused the one that in July United States prohibited the trade with Cuba. 
A hard blow for the Revolution was the reading in October of 1965, during the presentation of the Communist Party of Cuba, of the letter of the "Che" in the one that this gave up its positions in the party and to its degree of major. Soon after it left later for the Congo and two years he dies murdered in Bolivia. 
In 1968 it takes place the closing of bars and the prohibition of the national lottery, at the same time that a program of austerity is imposed, it is carried to an extreme the discipline and the productivity. Then, the harvest of the 10 millions of tons of the campaign fails 1969-70. Two years later, in July of 1972 Cuba it is admitted in the Market Common of the socialist area (CAME). 
During the celebration of the I Congress of the Communist Party, in December of 1975, the new Constitution, the division in 14 counties and the Five-year Plan 1976-80 was approved. The following year it is approved in popular referendum and the Constitution goes into effect and municipal elections that culminated with the formation of the National Assembly of the Popular Power took place. Before concluding 1976 Fidel Castro it assumed the headquarters of the State that added that of boss of the Government. 
In an intent to begin an approach with the exile, in November of 1978 they take place the meetings of the "Dialogue 1978" that culminated with the liberation of 3.600 political prisoners and the establishment of the conditions for the visits to the Island of the Cubans in the exterior. 
The dissatisfaction on behalf of the population took step in April of 1980 with the exit toward the exile in United States of 130.000 Cubans in the well-known flotilla of the freedom from the port of Mariel, with the result that to these they are known by "marielitos". Four years later relaxed the relationships with United States when being signed an emigration agreement, but this was suspended the following year when beginning the emissions of Radio Martí. 
After Fidel Castro's reelection like directing maximum in the III Congress of the Communist Party, in February of 1986, this outlines the necessity to begin a process of rectification of errors and negative tendencies that braked and they deformed the vital principles of the Revolution. The following year, 1987, the agreements are renewed it has more than enough emigration with United States. 
With the political transformations in the Soviet Union and the European communist countries at the end of the eighty and the modification of the advantageous economic and commercial relationships that until then enjoyed with these countries, August 29 1990 began a well-known stage as "Special Period in times of peace", for which 14 restriction measures are imposed in the consumption of gasoline and electricity. To palliate the situation Cuba it got in different forums of countries Hispanic help in exchange for having measured democratizadoras and the respect to the human rights. United States while gave a new nut turn on the Cuban régime with the approval in September of 1992 of the Law Torricerri. In 1993, the worst year that Cuba lives of the "Special Period" , they reestablished the economic relationships again and of collaboration with Russia, at the same time that the exit of the Island of the last Russian troops took place. 
In the first half of the ninety Cuba it adopted a series of measures as the decriminalization of holding of convertible foreign currencies (1993), the increment of permits to visit the Island to residents in the exterior, the possibility to buy in place reserved to the foreigners or the creation of agricultural markets of free sale, to those that added the modification of the structure of the Administration in 1994 with the appearance of half dozen of Ministries, as those of Economy and Planning, of Foreign Investment and Economic Collaboration or that of Tourism. In the socio-political plane an approach took place with the groups moderated in the exile with the celebration in April of 1994 of the I Confers with the community in the exterior. 
A new internal crisis hit the Castro pattern when in August of 1994 they almost left the country 20.000 Cubans (crisis of the balseros) in handmade crafts and going to the costs of Florida. The situation survived in May of 1995 with the Cuban-American definitive agreement for which the 32.000 balseros would still return to Cuba in Guantánamo, while for North American part they committed to deport to the island to those that were intercepted in high sea. 
The North American pressure increased with the promulgation of the Law Helms-Burton in March of 1996, for which would be sanctioned to countries that invested, they traded or they helped Cuba that was received with the international rejection by what they considered an injerencia in the foreign policy of the States and an international violation of the normative one of free trade economically. Clinton retarded that summer the entrance in vigor on behalf of the polemic law. 
Between 1995 and 1996 the European Union tried to establish a political dialogue with Cuba and to reach an agreement of economic and commercial cooperation, but finally this was not reached when rejecting Castro the projects contributed by the Europeans. Regarding the relationships with Spain, they had their more difficult moment between 1996 and 1998 soon after the non concession from the plácet to the Spanish ambassador after some declarations made by this and that they were considered as an injerencia in the Cuban national politics. To it was added it the pulse maintained by the Spanish Government of Aznar with the Cuban to which requested more democracy in the Island. 
He demolishes of two light planes from the anti-Castro "Brothers to the Rescue" for Cuban Mig in February of 1996 they tightened the Cuban-North American relationships again, for the first ones the incident took place in Cuban air space, violated by the light planes, and previous warning, while for the seconds the action was in international air space. 
The Cuban regime received a ball of oxygen international in January of 1998 with the Pope's visit Juan Pablo II that it culminated with the excarcelación of several hundreds of political prisoners. The previous Christmas, in test of previous spread hand to the Sacred Father's visit, they were declared festival for the Government Cuban, suspended 28 years before. Days before to this trip they took place elections legislativas in those that the elect deputies' two thirds were new in the National Assembly. In the following days to the Pope's trip the Council of State pardoned 300 political prisoners. 
In November it took place in Havana the Ibero-American IX Summit that had the presence of the Kings from Spain and the absence of several bosses of State.

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